The blood glucose management algorithm for type 2 diabetes outlines the risks, benefits and costs of available therapies and provides an approach for how to incorporate older and newer agents.
Control of blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes has clear benefits for preventing microvascular complications and potential benefits for reducing macrovascular complications and death.
Treatment needs to be individualised for the person with diabetes.
This should start with selection of the appropriate blood glucose and HbA1c targets, taking into account life expectancy and the wishes of the person with diabetes. A range of recently available therapies have added to our range of options for controlling blood glucose levels but this has made the clinical pathway for managing diabetes more complicated.
To assist with clinical decision making, in 2014 the Australian Diabetes Society council appointed an expert working group to draft a position statement with a focus on the results of recent randomised clinical trials. The original statement was reviewed by the ADS council (September 2014) and then sent to all ADS members for comment before publication in the Medical Journal of Australia (December 2014). In light of new randomised clinical trial evidence the statement and algorithm was updated (October, 2016).
Download the updated (October, 2016) full version of the ADS A New Blood Glucose Management Algorithm for Type 2 Diabetes Position Statement - PDF (Posted: October, 2016)
Obesity is a complex and multi-factorial chronic disease with genetic, environmental, physiological and behavioural determinants that requires long-term care. In 2014-15, 63.4% of Australians aged 18 years and over were above normal weight, with 27.9% being obese. Obesity is associated with a broad range of complications including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidaemia, sleep apnoea, osteoarthritis, and certain types of cancers, which significantly impair quality of life. Obesity and its related complications place a considerable financial burden on Australia. In 2014-15, the direct and indirect costs of obesity were estimated at $ 8.65 billion.
This statement has been developed by a working group with representatives from the Australian Diabetes Society, the Australian and New Zealand Obesity Society and the Obesity Surgery Society of Australian and New Zealand.
The aims of the document are to:
1) Assist general practitioners (GPs) in treatment decisions for non-pregnant adults with obesity
2) Provide a practical clinical tool to guide the implementation of existing guidelines for the treatment of obesity in the primary care setting in Australia.
Download the full version of the Australian Obesity Management Algorithm - PDF (Posted: October, 2016)
This Position Statement represents the collective views of the Australian Diabetes Society, the Australian Diabetes Educators Association and Diabetes Australia.The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) recently approved the first “biosimilar” insulin product for use in Australia – Basaglar Insulin. A “biosimilar” is a copy of a biological molecule that has already been approved for use and has a demonstrated similarity in physiological characteristics, efficacy and safety.
Download the full version of the Use of “biosimilar” Insulins for Diabetes Position Statement - PDF (Posted: October, 2015)
Guidance concerning the use of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus Postion Statement
The use of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus has been accepted by Medicare for reimbursement. The position statement "Guidance concerning the use of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus" has also been published in the MJA on 20 July 2015. Click here to view the document in MJA.(https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2015/203/2/guidance-concerning-use-glycated-haemoglobin-hba1c-diagnosis-diabetes-mellitus)
Like any test, the use of HbA1c for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus has its strengths and weaknesses. It is important for practitioners to be aware of its potential short comings as well as correctly interpreting a positive and a negative result. The aim of this position paper is to provide a succinct summary of how to optimally use the test to diagnose patients. The test represents an important advance and it is hoped that the guidance provided by this position statement will assist health practitioners to use the test effectively.
Download the full version of the 'Guidance concerning the use of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus' Position Statement - PDF (Posted: July, 2015)
Download the Press Release Statement on 'Guidance concerning the use of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus Position Statement' - PDF (Posted: July, 2015)
View and download the new HbA1c Conversion Table
ADS Recommendations for the use of HbA1c for the Diagnosis of Diabetes
HbA1c is now acceptable as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The threshold for diagnosis is at an HbA1c level of 6.5%. The existing glucose criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes remain valid as well.
The criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes are now:
In an asymptomatic patient the test should be repeated for confirmation of the result and diagnosis. An abnormal result on 2 different diagnostic tests is also acceptable. For full details of the recommendation of HbA1c for the diagnosis of diabetes, including situations where the HbA1c is unreliable, go to https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2012/197/4/role-hba1c-diagnosis-diabetes-mellitus-australia.
The ADS has recently endorsed international guidelines that recommend metabolic surgery for patients with type 2 diabetes and class III (BMI ≥40 kg/m2) obesity and patients with type 2 diabetes with class II (BMI 35.0–39.9 kg/m2) obesity who have had inadequate glycaemic control with lifestyle and pharmacotherapy.
Download the full version of the 'Metabolic Surgery in the Treatment Algorithm for Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Statement by International Diabetes Organizations' Guidelines - PDF (Posted: June, 2016)
Download the full version of the ADS A New Blood Glucose Management Algorithm for Type 2 Diabetes Position Statement - PDF (Posted: December, 2014)
The Position Statement was also published in the MJA (Med J Aust 2014; 201 (11): 650-653.). You can read the MJA article online.
The 2012 ADS Guidelines for Routine Glucose Control in Hospital have been developed over the last year, and cover a range of areas including general hospital wards, myocardial infarction, stroke, steroid-induced hyperglycaemia, enteral and parenteral feeding, insulin pump therapy, end of life situations, the optimal means for achieving glucose control, routine measures in hospital, and how to follow-up patients with newly discovered hyperglycaemia. The guidelines were informed by systematic reviews and evidence where there was any; otherwise they were based on consensus.
The Writing Party comprised David Chipps, Shirley Cornelius, Barbara Depczynski, Kristine Heels, David O’Neal, Jennifer Wong, Sophia Zoungas, and Wah Cheung.
Download the ADS Guidelines for Routine Glucose Control in Hospital - PDF
These guidelines have been developed by an ADS working group and are primarily intended to provide assistance for those practitioners whose primary focus is not diabetes or who do not have the support of local diabetes expertise in their management of patients with diabetes undergoing surgical procedures.
Download the ADS Peri-operative Diabetes Management Guidelines - PDF
The Australian Diabetes Society (ADS) and the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group (APEG) have completed the National Evidence Based Clinical Care Guidelines for Type 1 Diabetes in Children, Adolescents and Adults and is approved by the NHMRC under section 14A of the National Health and Medical Research Council Act 1992.
Download the National Evidence Based Clinical Care Guidelines for Type 1 Diabetes in Children, Adolescents and Adults - PDF
Download the National Evidence Based Clinical Care Guidelines for Type 1 Diabetes in Children, Adolescents and Adults (Technical Report) - PDF
Download the National Evidence Based Clinical Care Guidelines for Type 1 Diabetes in Children, Adolescents and Adults (Press Release Document) - PDF
(Please Note: Only electronic PDF copies are available)
The Australian Diabetes Society has produced a Position Statement regarding the individualization of HbA1c targets, for adults with diabetes mellitus. This has been published in the Medical Journal of Australia, in the issue of September 21, 2009. A more comprehensive document with further background documentation can also be downloaded here and you can read the MJA article online.
Posted: May, 2007
You can read the MJA article online.
The National Health & Medical Research Council (NHRMC) Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal can be accessed at http://www.clinicalguidelines.gov.au
All publications relating to Diabetes can be viewed and downloaded from the National Health & Medical Research Council (NHMRC) website at: http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines/publications/subject/Diabetes
During 2009, five Diabetes Type 2 Guidelines were approved by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of NHMRC under Section 14A of the NHMRC Act, namely:
These Guidelines comprise a suite of Type 2 Diabetes Guidelines developed under a funding agreement between the Department of Health and Ageing and the Diabetes Australia Guideline Development Consortium. The most recently finalised Guideline the National Evidence Based Guideline for the Primary Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes, was approved by the NHMRC CEO on 10 December 2009.
The five Guidelines in the series, when combined, present a comprehensive set of evidence-based guidelines for the
prevention, diagnosis and management of Type 2 Diabetes.
The five diabetes guidelines above can be viewed or downloaded at:-
The Australian Diabetes Society has published the following position statements prior to 2001:
The information contained in the ADS Position Statement & Guidelines section and elsewhere on this website is for general information only. It is designed to be educational and is not intended to be and is not a complete or definitive statement on any area of medical practice or procedure. The Society, its directors and other officers make no express or implied warranties, as to suitability for a particular purpose or otherwise, with respect to any information included on this website. Rapid advances in medicine may cause information contained in this website to become outdated or subject to debate. Visitors to this website who are not medical practitioners qualified in the field should seek further professional advice before any action is taken in relation to the matters described or referred to on this website.